Os sacerdotes egípcios devotos a Anúbis e Osíris revelam que a Terra é uma grande rocha plana que possui seu formato ovalado e é cercada por oceanos. Ela flutua na imensidão negra do cosmo que é a origem de todas as coisas e é chamados pelos egípcios de Nun. A parte superior da Terra é habitadas pelos seres vivos enquanto os seus subterrâneos são formados por uma rede complexa de cavernas subterrâneas que é habitada pelos mortos. Este lugar é chamado de Duat.
Conforme a tradição egípcia, a alma é constituída por três elementos indivisíveis: o Ka (a essência vital), o Ba (a personalidade) e o Coração (os sentimentos). Cada um desses elementos, é variável para pessoa do mundo egípcio, por isso, é dito que cada alma é única. No entanto, essa alma não pode sobreviver sem um veículo que a conduza pelos planos de existência, seja na Terra ou no Duat. Os´veículos para cada um desses planos de existência são, respectivamente, o Corpo e o Espírito. No entanto, para a infelicidade de todos, se a Terra é perigosa para o Corpo, o Duat é ainda mais perigoso para o Espírito.
Não há lugar seguro no Duat. O brilho da barca-solar não consegue alcançar através da rocha que a circunda. O local mais parece um grande deserto rochoso e estéril. Tudo é sombrio. Há árvores, mas estas são retorcidas. Há rios, mas estes são de sangue e fogo. Há montanhas, mas estas são gélidas. Não há o firmamento celeste, apenas musgo e raízes retorcidas que saem da rocha que recobre o lugar. Cavernas escuras escondem monstros terríveis. Os campos são habitados por entidades sanguinárias. Viver no Duat é viver em constante terror.
A terríveis criaturas do Duat possuem fome pela essência vital dos espíritos e estão disposta a destruir as almas que encontram para saciar o vazio em seu estômago. Mesmo que por um breve momento. E nada é mais desesperador para um indivíduo do que ter seu Corpo destruído na Terra e seu Espírito destruído no Duat. Afinal, quando isso ocorre, restará apenas a Sombra, um resquício triste de uma existência esquecida e irrecuperável. Essa é a temível “Segunda Morte”.
Am-heh, o devorador de almas
O mundo espiritual do Duat é dividido ao meio pelo imenso Lago de Fogo, que circunda e protege o Reino Sagrado de Osíris. Toda região ao Oeste se estende desde esse Lago de Fogo até o portal por onde entra a barca-solar, que fica Montanhas de Manu. Essa região é extremamente arenosa e estéril, sendo recortada por rios de lava ardente que se originam do Lago de Fogo e banhada por um grande oceano negro chamado de Wernes. Toda essa região conhecida como Duat Ocidental é também a mais perigosa.
O Duat Ocidental é habitado por monstros disformes. Existe a raça dos homens-serpentes chamados de Sesy, dos homens-bagre chamados de Nariu e dos cabeça de chacal. No entanto, outros tão únicos e estranhos que não podem sequer ser separados em alguma raça específica. Todos são monstros sem individualidade, por isso, nem sequer possuem nomes próprios. Eles são conhecidos apenas por seus epítetos. E o pior desses monstros certamente é aquele conhecido por “Devorador de Pecadores”, “Arrebatador de Milhões” ou “Fatiador de Almas”. Essa é uma criatura com cabeça de cão caçador que vive em perseguição às almas condenadas.
Ammit (/ˈæmɪt/; Ancient Egyptian: ꜥm-mwt, “devourer of the dead”; also rendered Ammut or Ahemait) was a demoness and goddess in ancient Egyptian religion with a body that was part lion, hippopotamus, and crocodile—the three largest “man-eating” animals known to ancient Egyptians. A funerary deity, her titles included “Devourer of the Dead”, “Eater of Hearts“, and “Great of Death”. Ammit lived near the scales of justice in Duat, the Egyptian underworld. In the Hall of Two Truths, Anubis weighed the heart of a person against the feather of Ma’at, the goddess of truth, which was depicted as an ostrich feather (the feather was often pictured in Ma’at’s headdress). If the heart was judged to be not pure, Ammit would devour it, and the person undergoing judgement was not allowed to continue their voyage towards Osiris and immortality. Once Ammit swallowed the heart, the soul was believed to become restless forever; this was called “to die a second time”. Ammit was also sometimes said to stand by a lake of fire. In some traditions, the unworthy hearts were cast into the fiery lake to be destroyed. Some scholars believe Ammit and the lake represent the same concept of destruction.
Ba-Pef was a minor underworld god in Egyptian mythology. The name literally means that Ba, meaning that soul (ba). Ba-Pef is commonly portrayed as an obscure malevolent deity known from the Old Kingdom. During the Old and Middle Kingdom the priesthood of Ba-Pef was held by queens.
Deities of the first eleven caves (Hart)
|° 1||a) nine jackal-headed deities feeding on rotten fleshb) snake deities guarding the “Silent Region”||7||/|
|2||a) spitfire-snake called Sesyb) primeval catfish-headed gods called Nariu||8||“Those Who Raise Their Superiors To The Sky”|
|3||a) Nehebkaub) nine catfish-headed gods led by Osíris||9||Gods of the Primeval Abyss|
|4||“Great One Who Is On His Belly”||10||Groaning goddesses with blood-dripping axes|
|5||a) Nutb) itiphallic Osíris||11||Ammit|
Deities in the 10th cavern (Wilkinson)
In particular, the Egyptologist Richard H. Wilkinson thus grouped the deities and the supernatural creatures residing in the 10th cave, along with their beneficent deeds once the deceased successfully tamed them:
|Deities||Beneficent deeds||Deities||Beneficent deeds|
|“Those Who Belong To TheSushine”||Give the deceased light||The “Hidden Goddess”||Grants the soul be strong and thebody be intact|
|“Those Who Take Hold”||Grant the deceased be acclaimed||“The Souls Of The Gods WhoBecame Members of Osiris”||Grant the deceased be in peace|
|“Nine Gods Who Guard Those InThe Cavern”||Give the deceased the breath of life||“Those Who Worship Ra“||Grant the deceased not be rejected fromany gate of the underworld|
|“Nine Gods Whose Arms AreHidden”||Grant the deceased be worth anddignified||“Those Whose Faces Are Warlike”||Grant the deceased be cool in thehottest places of the netherworld|
Tatenen (also Ta-tenen, Tatjenen, Tathenen, Tanen, Tenen, Tanenu, and Tanuu) was the deity of the primordial mound in ancient Egyptian religion. His name means “risen land” or “exalted earth”, as well as referring to the silt of the Nile. As a primeval chthonic deity, Tatenen was identified with creation. Both feminine and masculine, he was an androgynous protector of nature from the Memphis area (then known as Men-nefer), the ancient capital of the Inebu-hedj nome in Lower Egypt.
Tatenen represented the Earth and was born in the moment it rose from the watery chaos, analogous to the primeval mound of the benben and mastaba and the later pyramids. He was seen as the source of “food and viands, divine offers, all good things”, as his realms were the deep regions beneath the earth “from which everything emerges”, specifically including plants, vegetables, and minerals. In the Third Intermediate Period hymn, The Great Hymn of Khnum, he is identified with the creator god Khnum, who created “all that is” on his potter’s wheel. This fortuity granted him the titles of both “creator and mother who gave birth to all gods” and “father of all the gods”. He also personified Egypt (due to his associations with rebirth and the Nile) and was an aspect of the earth-god Geb, as a source of artistic inspiration, as well as assisting the dead in their journey to the afterlife.
He is first attested in the inscriptions that mostly appear on Middle Kingdom coffins during the First Intermediate Period. In those inscriptions his name appears as Tanenu or Tanuu, ‘the inert land’, a name which characterizes him as a deity of the primeval condition of the earth. Middle Kingdom texts provide the first examples of the form Tatenen.
With a staff, Tatenen repelled the evil serpent Apep from the Primeval Mound. He also had a magical mace dedicated to the falcon, venerated as “The Great White of the Earth Creator”. In one interpretation, Tatenen brought the Djed-pillars of stability to the country, although this is more commonly attributed to Ptah.
In Egyptian mythology, Nehebkau (also spelled Nehebu-Kau, and Neheb Ka) was originally the explanation of the cause of binding of Ka and Ba after death. Thus his name, which means (one who) brings together Ka. Since these aspects of the soul were said to bind after death, Nehebkau was said to have guarded the entrance to Duat, the underworld.
was one of the more important glyphs in his name, and although it was technically a variation on the glyph for two arms raised in prayer, it also resembles a two-headed snake, and so Nehebkau became depicted in art as a snake with two heads (occasionally with only one). As a two-headed snake, he was viewed as fierce, being able to attack from two directions, and not having to fear as much confrontations. Consequently sometimes it was said that Atum, the chief god in these areas, had to keep his finger on him to prevent Nehebkau from getting out of control. Alternatively, in areas where Ra was the chief god, it was said that Nehebkau was one of the warriors who protected Ra whilst he was in the underworld, during Ra’s nightly travel, as a sun god, under the earth.
When he was seen as a snake, he was also thought to have some power over snake-bites, and by extension, other venomous bites, such as those of scorpions, thus sometimes being identified as the son of Serket, the scorpion-goddess of protection against these things. Alternatively, as a snake, since he was connected to an aspect of the soul, he was sometimes seen as the son of Renenutet, a snake-goddess, who distributed the Ren, another aspect of the soul, and of the earth (Geb), on which snakes crawl.
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