Rei: Battus


After Dido’s tragic death, Anna finds refuge from her brother Pygmalion on Malta, with Battus the king of the island and a wealthy host.[1] The “fertile island”[1] of Melite, near Cossyra, provided hospitality to Anna, with Battus saying that ‘This land, however small, is yours.’ [1] Battus would have continued to provide sanctuary to Anna and her companions, but in the third year of her exile, Anna’s brother came in her pursuit. The king hated war, as the island was a peaceable sanctuary, and asked Anna to flee for her own safety.[1] She fled at his command, with Battus giving her a ship.


After 2500 BC, the Maltese Islands were depopulated for several decades until the arrival of a new influx of Bronze Age immigrants, a culture that cremated its dead and introduced smaller megalithic structures called dolmens to Malta.[56] In most cases there are small chambers here, with the cover made of a large slab placed on upright stones. They are claimed to belong to a population certainly different from that which built the previous megalithic temples. It is presumed the population arrived from Sicily because of the similarity of Maltese dolmens to some small constructions found on the largest island of the Mediterranean sea.[57]


Lampécia e Fetusa

In Greek mythology, Phaethusa or Phaëthusa /ˌfəˈθjzə/ (Ancient Greek: Φαέθουσα Phaéthousa, “radiance”) was a daughter of Helios and Neaera, the personification of the brilliant, blinding rays of the sun. With her sister, Lampetia, she guarded the cattle of Thrinacia. She carried a copper staff with which she tended to her father’s herd of sheep. She is listed as among the Heliades.

Lampetia /ˌlæmˈpʃə/ (Ancient Greek: Λαμπετίη, romanizedLampetíē or Ancient Greek: Λαμπετία, romanizedLampetía, lit. ‘shining’) was the daughter of Helios and Neaera; she was the personification of light. Her sister, Phaethusa, and she were taken by their mother to guard the cattle and sheep of Thrinacia. She looked after 700 animals in total. She ran to her father when Odysseus‘ men slaughtered and sacrificed some of his ageless and deathless cattle. Her father, Helios, was enraged and asked the gods to avenge the deaths of his cattle, threatening to bring sunlight to the underworld if the men were not punished. Zeus then sent a lightning bolt down and a storm, killing all of Odysseus’ men, a doom that was portended by the meat writhing and lowing on the spits.[1]



Pleione. Pleione married Atlas and gave birth to the PLEIADES and the HYADES 1 (see also Aethra 1 above in this list). Apd.3.10.1; Hyg.Fab.192; Ov.Fast.5.83.

The stars called PLEIADES in the constellation of Taurus commemorate the PLEIADES, daughters of Atlas and Pleione, daughter of Oceanus. The rising of the PLEIADES is a sign of summer, and their setting of winter, and for this reason this constellation has been more honored than the others.

Number of PLEIADES

It is said that the PLEIADES are seven in number but only six can be seen. Some say that the reason is that all mated with immortals except one of them (Merope 1). However, others affirm that because of the sack of Troy and the destruction of the house of Dardanus 1, Electra 3 left her sisters, and took a place in the Artic circle. That is why they sing: … In Troy‘s last hour … Electra shrouded her form in mist and cloud, and left the Pleiad-band … Still rises up … their bright troop in the skies; but she alone hides viewless ever since the town of her son Dardanus in ruin fell … (Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy 13.555).

Pleione attacked by Orion

But ancient astronomers placed the PLEIADES apart from the constellation Taurus. They say that when Pleione once was traveling with her daughters through Boeotia, she was attacked by Orion, and as she managed to escape from him, he sought her for seven years without being able to find her. Zeus then, pitying the girls, appointed a way to the stars, and later astronomers said that they were in the Bull’s tail (Taurus’ tail). That is why Orion goes after them as they flee towards the west.


The HYADES 1 were sisters of Hyas, or else his daughters, and when Hyas died while hunting, killed by a lion, a boar, or a Lybian lioness, they grieved his death exceedingly, and turned into the stars called Hyades which are in the constellation of Taurus.

Parentage disputed

It is said that Atlas and Aethra 1 had fifteen daughters, out of which five were called Hyades because they were sisters of Hyas. When due to continual lamentation they perished, the remaining ten sisters killed themselves; and it is said that they were called PLEIADES because so many experienced the same grief. But others have said that the HYADES 1 were so called after their father Hyas, and the PLEIADES after their mother Pleione, wife of Atlas.

Among the stars

For it has also been said that Atlas had by Pleione twelve daughters, and a son Hyas, who was killed by a wild boar or a lion. On his death, the sisters died of their grief and some of them (Phaesyla, Ambrosia, Coronis 1, Eudore 1, and Polyxo 2) were put in the constellation of Taurus between the horns of the bull, being called Hyades (the Suculae) after their brother, whom they grieved. The rest of the sisters, who also died of grief although for the death of the HYADES 1, were called PLEIADES, some say because of their number, others because of their mother, and still others for other reasons.

Nurses of Dionysus 2

Also the HYADES 1, who previously were the NYMPHS DODONIDES (see NYMPHS), are called nurses of Dionysus 2, and it is said that they, and not Hermes, delivered the god, when he still was a defenceless child, to Athamas 1‘s wife Ino, so that she and her husband should rear him. For this, they say, Zeus rewarded them by putting them among the CONSTELLATIONS. It is also said that these NYMPHS DODONIDES, at a request of Dionysus 2, were changed into young girls by Medea, who put off their Old Age before they were consecrated among the stars; for the god had witnessed the rejuvenation of Jason‘s father Aeson, which the witch had performed, and marvelling at it, asked Medea that his nurses might be restored to YouthAt other times, the HYADES 1 are considered to be the MAENADS who were put to flight by Lycurgus 1, the King of the Edonians (Thrace) or of the island of Naxos, or of the Arabians, who was the first to oppose and expel Dionysus 2.

Saved Alcmena

A vase shows Alcmena seated on an altar stacked with wood. According to this version of the myth (which is depicted in yet another vase), Alcmena‘s infidelity was punished by her husband Amphitryon (the figure holding the torches). Alcmena was saved by Zeus, who sent a storm. The HYADES (‘sisters of rain’) are seen pouring water on the pyre. The scene could be a representation of Euripides’ Alcmena.

Others so called